I am hoping to add more research subjects to my current project. Please read the post below. If you or anyone you know might be qualified to participate, please have them contact me. Thanks!
This is the post excerpt.
This is the post excerpt.
I am hoping to add more research subjects to my current project. Please read the post below. If you or anyone you know might be qualified to participate, please have them contact me. Thanks!
La Borne has been home to potters since, at least, the beginning of the 17th century. The oak forests around the village were planted to provide wood to build the navy vessels for King Louis XIV’s fleet. Today they supply the potters and their kilns and are carefully managed. For the most part, the potters use the wood found on the floor of the forest and that from the ‘thinning’ management. One informative talk during the conference was precisely on the history of the forest and its management, something that is not a normal topic in Manitoba because we have so little available wood in comparison. Indeed, one of the reasons for building the new Bourry Box kiln is to be able to continue wood firing at the School but also, to conserve the amount of wood used in these firings.
The shape and type of kilns built in La Borne has evolved with economic and social changes in the country. The early, extremely colossal kilns, often known as ‘whale kilns’, were used to fire storage jars for transporting and storing food. In the 20th century, demands by the local farms for pottery slowly declined because of new manufactured products that served the same purpose but were cheaper to purchase. After World War II, there was a shift in the type of work made in the village. Up until this time, the pottery production in La Borne was entirely for domestic uses related to the storage, cooking, and serving of food and drink. After, there is the arrival of the first individuals trained in art school, many of whom worked in creating clay sculpture. Jacqueline and Jean Lerat were two such ceramic artists. Their son gave a superb talk about their work and the change in the type of production in La Borne at this time.
Today, the kilns in La Borne are much smaller, suitable for the production of one or two persons. They range from the Sevres style with a one cubic metre ware chamber that belong to Atelier Dominique Gare-Roz Herrin and the same style of kiln to Jean and Claud Guillaume. Dominique Gare has a six cubic metre noborigama while Svein Hjort Jensen fires a three cubic metre anagama. Included with the Bourry Box styles and the Asian kiln types are also a number of kilns based on the designs of Fred Olsen. Sylvie Rigal has a one cubic metre train kiln while Dominique Legros fires a 300 litre Four Dragon kiln. At the end of October, these kilns will be lit, most at the same time, for the firing festival known as ‘La Borne senflamme’. It has been an annual event since the 17th century. This event and the Third European Wood Fire Conference has brought many outsiders to this picturesque village, some 40 minutes from Bourges. It is hoped that the village and its potters continue to prosper in the centuries to come. If it is, there needs to be a way to bring more youth to the village to establish their own studios. Indeed, there were many young people who attended the conference so there is hope!
I am grateful to all the members of the Association Ceramique La Borne for all of the events they organized. It was difficult to decide which talk or workshop to take from the descriptions on line. This was so unfortunate. But, like everywhere else, choices had to be made. The conference took advantage of local resources and the beauty of the Loire Valley. There was an excursion to the Decorative Arts Museum and St Etienne in Bourges on Thursday and tomorrow there is a trip to Sancrette. Of course, having time to catch up with acquaintances that you haven’t seen for four years or meeting new friends and having discussions in between the formal events really is what these events are about.
And a correction. There are three countries interested in hosting the Fourth European Wood Fire Conference. They are Latvia, Belgium, and Spain (Barcelona). It had been anticipated that the next host would be announced today but, each of the venues has asked for more time to consider their resources in relation to the hundred attendees (the average of the paying guests during the first three conferences).
Today was officially day 4 of the Third European Wood Fire Conference in LeBorne, France. It is just such a magical place. To reach LeBorne from Bourges, about a 40 minute drive using winding country roads, you pass through corn and sunflower fields. As you get closer, you enter the forests that have supplied the potters in the area with wood for centuries. Indeed, several Roman-Gallo kilns have been unearthed and the conference has recreated two of these for the participants to see how they were constructed. My very good friend, Dr Julia Nema from Budapest, spoke to the influences of Malevich and Moholgy-Nagy on her light sculptures while Fred Olsen provided everyone with a reason to use cartable for building a wood kiln instead of bricks. Other events included a round table discussion on the future of wood firing, tours to two local museums, and, of course, the numerous open studios of the potters living and working in LeBorne. You do not have to look far to find pottery sitting in gardens, on shelves of buildings or gracing gardens. The anagama kiln will be finished firing tomorrow and if the rain would stop we might actually see the bottle kiln finished!
The first conference was held in Brollin and my friend, Markus Boehm, who came to build the Bourry Box kiln for the School in June, headed up that committee. Priscilla Mouritzen was part of the team that hosted the second conference at the International Ceramic Research Centre in Skaelskor, Germany. At that time only Denmark was wanting to host the second one. It appears that was the case with the third being in LeBorne but, the events are so successful that this time there are four centres vying for the fourth conference in 2022. It reminds me now of the Olympics. But, I keep asking: who decides who will be the host? Since this has not been a problem previously, no one seems to be able to answer. The short list contenders are: Russia, Latvia, Barcelona, and Belgium. Everyone will find out Friday morning!
Meanwhile, I am staring at a stack of catalogues and books that I would never be able to readily find in Canada or on Amazon – as well as some pottery – and trying to figure out how I am going to get this back to Canada next week. The local potters would have sold much more to ‘the foreigners’ if someone had the foresight to have a ‘for charge’ packing and mailing business locally for this event.
The anticipation was in the air as wood firing potters began arriving in the village of La Borne for the Third European Wood Fire Conference. The first was held in Brollin Germany in 2010 and the second at Guldagergaard in Denmark in 2014. From the looks of things, the French have studied both of those conferences and have things well in hand.
La Borne is home to the Contemporary Ceramic Institute, which helps. The main building holds a sales area for all of the members of the institute plus one of the finest book shops focused entirely on ceramics I have ever seen. There are both French and English sections. Oh, if books weren’t so heavy! There is, in addition, approximately 1000 sq feet of exhibition space. Behind this is the kiln shed with three different types of wood burning kilns. Tents have been set up, t-shirts have been printed, and only the French would think of building a kiln out of wine bottles. Down the road is the museum linking today’s potters with those who were working here in medieval times. There are maps showing the directions to the individual potter’s studios that are open for tours. To combat what might be a lack of restaurants – after all – hundreds are planning to descend on this sleepy pottery village –
many have set up cafes in their garden. Some are even selling homemade jam. And as I write to you I am enjoying the end of season strawberries so sweet and tiny along with a chocolate croissant and strong cup of coffee. Life could not be any better!
Stay posted. I will try and fit in the week’s events on a bi-daily basis!
It isn’t often that one gets to shut out the world and deal with a single passion, but for the next month I will be in Denmark (with a skip over to France for the Third European Woodfire Conference at LeBorn) doing just that. While there are many influences on 20th century and contemporary ceramics, two are the Japanese and the Scandinavians. In fact, during a conversation with Bob Archambeau, several years ago, he reminded me that he, too, was influenced by the work coming from Scandinavia and that people often forget about their superb ceramics. He is right. Most books and exhibitions, in Canada, if not North America, focus almost entirely on the impact of the British Studio Pottery Movement or the Japanese. It is difficult to find books on Scandinavian or Danish ceramics. One of the things I am trying to unearthing this summer is the difference in the aesthetics in Japanese and Danish wood firing. I am searching for images and ideas to encapsulate these two traditions in a comparison that can more easily be understood by my students who will, no doubt, become bored by thousands of images!
You can imagine what a treat it was to look at the current exhibitions in Copenhagen and find a show at the Design Museum focused entirely on the Japanese influence on Danish design. Several rooms contained ceramics, textiles, Danish furniture and lamps inspired by origami, wood, and metal. One has to consider the minimalistic character of 20th century Danish modern and its relationship to that of Japan. The featured image is of tableware inspired by Japan. Notice the clean lines and then look at the use of colour. Everywhere I look in Denmark there is some colour. In other instances, it was difficult to see the relationship. Large tsubo (storage containers) might also be kin to those found on the Greek islands, the ones with lugs used to hold olive and walnut oils. Still, how lucky to be able to spend an entire day wrestling with one’s mind to understand and follow the logic of the curator who, after all, had to deal with works that were in the museum’s collection.
Five students at the University of Manitoba worked on various aspects of ceramics over the summer months. They are winding up their studies and it is time for you to see some of the work that they completed. They were Iris Smith, Jade Shynkaruk, Rebecca Sutherland, Sara Berg, and Selena Dyck.
These five students discovered in the spring that they required anywhere from 3-9 credit hours at the 3000 level in order to enter their Honours or 4th year of study. Of the five, three work almost full time. One student, Jade, had more experience with clay and is the President of the Ceramics Club for 2018-19. One student, Rebecca, had no experience with clay. The other three: Iris, Sara, and Selena, had taken the three credit hour beginning wheel throwing class in the fall of 2017 and another course in wheel throwing in the winter. At the School of Art, students take five three-credit hour classes per term. In other words, these students did not have the luxury of working full time in the ceramics space until this summer. Each was working on a different project.
Sara Berg is very interested in Classical Chinese cobalt painting on porcelain. She wanted to master, as best she could, this technique before moving on to her own subject matter that would still be expressed in this ancient technique. She also worked on classical forms and took part in the wood kiln workshop where she not only learned to properly mortar bricks and the laying of bricks but also was able to use her welding skills to create the frame for the kiln. We were really grateful for these hidden talents! Little did we know that she was also a diesel mechanic and had a license to drive an 18 wheeler. Sara moved to painting her own story on the largest of the porcelain stools she constructed – a young warrior woman and she is truly a warrior! She has not had the time to study the history of ceramics and the inspiring women of the 20th century but she came up with one bowl that is so reminiscent of Lucie Rie that I am including it. Can’t wait to see what she does this fall.
Selena Dyck wanted to study cone 6 glazes. She loves blue and green. Selena’s work exhibits a dedication to detail, mastery of form, and consistent testing and questioning. Her first project was to make a 12 piece place setting of dishes. Her second was to create 40 test pots and learn how to take a transparent glaze, make it opaque, and then colour both the transparent and the opaque base. She discovered that she prefers the cone 6 Campana clear with copper carbonate added. Selena challenged herself to create a set of 5 perfect nesting bowls – which she certainly accomplished! Her dedication to keeping her glaze journal, the details about each of the glazes and their reaction and where they were in the kiln will be a good tool for her in the future. Selena was the first one to discover that Reitz Water Blue pinholes. We now think that the overfilling of our kilns is the cause. Didn’t impact the smaller bowls but was readily apparent on the larger ones. Selena asked all of the right questions – has an enquiring and observational mind. She would make a great ceramist. The handles on the cups at the front fooled our MFA student. Mary thought they were press-moulded. Nope. Selena got very good at pulling handles! Sadly, the ceramics area is losing her to print media in year 4.
Jade Shynkaruk came to Winnipeg from Brandon where she had studied ceramics. She has a keen eye for a colour palette, understands the importance of colours and how they relate to interiors, and was one of the first students to know what the company Pantone does! Jade works full time as a consultant at one of the Benjamin-Moore stores in Winnipeg and she translates that work into her ceramics which sell off the tables whenever there is a Club sale. I am super impressed with the weight of her work, the size of the coffee cups, and the care that she takes figuring out the glazing and how the colours relate to one another. Jade is not ready to set out and become a full time production potter but she worked on all the things that a professional potter had to master: form, repetition of form, the right weight for the vessel, and the glazing. She will do very well. She also has an Etsy site: Etsy.com/shop/jadecoraldesign
Rebecca Sutherland came and wanted to try and see if she could take her love for Japanese ceramics and translate that into a short course in clay. Rebecca had never worked with clay at the beginning of June. And I have to admit that there was a part of me that worried an awful lot about her. So, never touched clay before June and works full time at a Canadian bank. This is an independent study class. We met over the summer but, until today, I had never seen any of her work glazed. Rebecca was marked on her progress during the course. From nothing to a beautiful bento box out of clay with a pressed bamboo motif. It displayed an attention to detail and the colour that she choose worked well, pooling darker in the blades of the Asian grass. I am hoping that she keeps working.
Iris likes colour (and marbles melted onto her plates). When I first met her, I said something about orange, possibly that it was not so popular a colour in ceramics, unlike blue which I was told once, ‘everybody loves’. Iris chirped up and said, ‘I like orange’. She also likes green, pink, and takes a lot of risks in terms of putting colour together. Iris took other academic courses while working almost full time and also finding time to train new staff at Starbuck’s. I want to add here that she gave me a new respect for the coffee chain because they provide benefits for their part time staff. Tomorrow she goes back to being full time before classes resume in September. Iris approaches her work as something she wants to use. Because she has arthritis in her fingers, she presses in the sides of her tumblers so that she can grasp them easily and on her rice bowls she faceted the sides. Look at the combination of the Reitz water blue on the interior of the pink tumblers. Quite unique.
It was my privilege to work with these five young women over the summer. To see what a concentrated time on a single project can benefit their learning. I wish each of the five of them the very best. Please keep your eyes out for their work…they are the young rising ceramic stars. This includes Selena who I hope we can lure back into clay!
Apologies for the photos. The lack of any quality is all mine and I should add that because of the light this morning, some of the work really is much more beautiful in person.
Top row, left to right: Selena’s five set mixing bowls, Jade’s teapot and bowls, Jade’s trinket bowl. Second row: Iris’s tea bowls, Sarah’s dragon stool, Sarah’s vases.Third row: a close up of Iris’s fluted tea bowls, Iris’s pink plate with marble, Selena’s mugs. Last row: Jade’s mugs, Rebecca’s bamboo box, Sara’s second porcelain stool with female mythology.
Top image: Rebecca’s bamboo bento box and 2 pinched tea cups
As I began to prepare for my talk on the marginalization of women within the wood fire community (or women ceramists in general) at LaBorne in a few weeks, I took the opportunity to do what was done earlier with art history survey texts: I started to examine the inclusion of women in publications on the subject.
In 2011, Mansfield Press, owned by the late Janet Mansfield (herself an internationally respected woman who fired her work with wood), published Owen Rye’s The Art of Woodfire: A Contemporary Practice. The book has a statement from Rye on why he is so passionate about wood firing in addition to a discussion on the aesthetics, history, and materials and processes of this very physical method of working with clay. There are pages devoted to individual artists alongside beautiful (and large) images of their work and kilns. Most discuss their choice of wood firing over other methods or what inspires them. My objective was a little different.
The book was written in response to to an exhibition which was held at the Front Room Gallery in Gulgong, NSW, eventually travelling to all of Australia in 2011. But it is much more than a catalogue and the discussions could be applied to the concerns within the wood firing community internationally. Rye included a discussion of the 24 artists within the exhibition. Of these the women represented include the late Janet Mansfield, Sandy Lockwood, Barbara Campbell-Allen (including a large photo of her anagama kiln in Kurrajong, NSW opposite an image of a vase and a bottle), and Carol Rosser. Mention was made of others including Gwyn Hanssen Pigott and Moraig McKenna whose lovely wood fire porcelain was featured in two photographs.
Would I like to see at least half of the attention go to women? Absolutely. But a gold star has to go out to Owen Rye. Many of the other publications do not include a single woman. Stay tuned!
The quote is from the Australian ceramist, Paul Davis. Markus Boehm told it to me and it fits my talk at the Third European Wood Firing Conference in LeBorn perfectly. If you know Paul Davis (great guy, great sense of humour), you will understand that this statement was partly made in jest. Still, for many, wood firing is all part of the male realm and the building of wood kilns and the firing of them has to be the biggest, the longest, and the dirtiest consuming vast quantities of wood for days and weeks. As the School of Art and I began to plan for a new wood kiln that would be a learning tool, large kilns with firing schedules more than twelve hours were rejected. We wanted a kiln that the students could fire in less than a day and fire so often that they could learn through experience. There was also a huge desire to be kinder to Mother Earth.
Does anyone out there think that this would be a controversial issue?
Over the course of my research on the impact of the Vietnam resisters on Canadian ceramics, it became very clear that many of the men who immigrated believed and still understand that the women who came with them – whether it was a supportive partner, sister, mom, or friend – gave up nothing. I was told so many times that the women could go back and forth freely without fear of going to jail that I almost took those statements for granted. But, it is not true. I was one of those women. I left behind a very elderly grandmother who had raised me, my parents, and friends. Others left behind careers, studios, and commissions. The voices of those women were quite literally silenced.
There are only two Japanese women who fire with wood. Why? There is an ancient myth that the kilns will blow up if the women take part in the firing process. Really?
Ironically, if you look at the percentage of women firing wood kilns, many alone, in Germany’s Mecklenburg-Vorpommern region, north of Berlin, you will discover that there are more women firing wood kilns than men. Over the years I have been fortunate to meet some of these talented individuals and I am grateful. They have shown me that women can manage trees, cut them down, haul them to the area for cutting, stacking, and drying. And, finally, they can fuel their kilns with these logs. Ute Dreist is only one of many women working in the field. Others include Birke Kastner, Charis Lober, Katrin Otolski, Angelika Reich, Silwia Barke, Regine Schonemann, and Christiane Lambertz amongst others. There are similar percentages in other parts of Northern Europe, France, and Scandinavia. Indeed, a survey in Canada shows that the number of women who choose to wood fire their ceramics is growing steadily.
So what is the problem? Is it just me? Or is the books and the journals in North America that continue to feature more men than women? How about exhibitions that focus solely on wood fired vessels or sculpture? It is the same. This is surely bothersome. In ceramics classes across Canada today, the vast majority are female students. Last year I had only one male student out of twenty-one in my class. There are currently no male students registered in my fall wood firing class. I haven’t gotten to the point – yet- where I am going to start to count the number of women featured in journals, books, and exhibitions like the Guerrilla Girls did when they took on the New York City Fine Art establishment and started a movement —- but I am almost there. The examples of wood fired work in the display cases at the School of Art have only the work of men. So who are these young women to look up to? And who is giving these young students ‘their’ vision of wood fired ceramics?
It all comes back to the featured image of the new wood kiln. The whispers behind my back were not only about the size of the kiln but its style along with great disbelief that a kiln could be built and fired in a week. I mean the ole’ girl went off her rocker, right? That is the male view. And it is that male view that is dominant in Canada. If I could take these young women and transport them to see Priscilla Mouritzen firing a similar wood kiln or let them have coffee with Julia Nema, then they would have some role models. But, in Canada and especially in the Prairies where we don’t have anything but planted trees, the ideal kiln is the anagama. Apparently there are at least twelve of them in the neighbouring province of Saskatchewan. Now, I have nothing against these medieval Japanese kilns who hurl smoke in the air and consume large quantities of wood except for just that – they hurl vast amounts of black smoke in the air, consumming larger and larger quantities of wood. There are alternatives. Paul Davis, who studied in Japan for years, will tell you that there are a lot of “ugly brown pots” coming out of those anagamas. So why are they so privileged? I wonder.
Stay tuned. This whole issue was being discussed by some men back in 1973 including Fred Olsen.